The vote gives outline planning permission to Heathrow for the controversial construction of a North-West runway, a significant portion of which will bridge over the M25.
A total of 415 MPs voted in favour of expansion, with just 119 votes against. However, local campaigners, four local boroughs and the London Assembly are among the groups who will now seek to overturn the decision in the courts.
Greenpeace UK executive director John Sauven said: "If ministers don't want to uphold the laws protecting us from toxic fumes and climate change, we're going to ask a court to do that."
An hour before the vote on Monday night (June 25), police were forced to shut down the central lobby after environmental protesters from Vote No Heathrow staged a lie-in in.
Expansion at Heathrow Airport is forecasted to create 40,000 new skilled jobs at the airport, in addition to the 78,000 that already work on the airport site. However the area around the airport is expected to benefit from 114,000 extra jobs, while Heathrow's plan to carry out as much construction as possible off-site means potential employment boosts across the country.
The Heathrow Airport Limited plan, which will see the demolition of half of Harmondsworth village as well as parts of Sipson and Longford, includes a confirmed £2.6 billion compensation package but many locals believe that is not enough to allay fears of increased noise and air polution.
For their part, Heathrow have promised unparalleled levels of noise insulation to be installed in eligible homes for free, as well as an increased 6.5 hour overnight flight ban and a "triple lock" guarantee to meet air quality obligations.
Meanwhile, the new runway promises to create 40 new long-haul routes and the doubling of the airport's cargo handling capacity as well as creation of new domestic routes.
Transport Secretary Chris Grayling is expected to designate the final Airports National Policy Statement approved by Parliament within the coming days, setting the framework for the planning consent application.
The airport will launch another, more detailed, local-level consultation in early 2019 before the final plan is submitted to the Planning Inspectorate. The process of approval is expected to take around 18 months and Heathrow hopes to start construction work by 2021 and open the runway in 2026.
Heathrow CEO John Holland-Kaye said: “Parliament has ended 50 years of debate by deciding that Heathrow expansion will go ahead. This vote will see us deliver more jobs, create a lasting legacy of skills for future generations and guarantee expansion is delivered responsibly.
"We are grateful that MPs have made the right choice for Britain and today we start work to create the best connected hub airport in the world.”
Paul McGuinness, Chair of the No 3 Runway Coalition, said: " Heathrow’s shareholders may well have noted the lack of cross-party unity in this vote, and the fact that members of the governing party only supported their third runway under sufferance.
“There’s a long way to go before Heathrow can start knocking down villages or putting spades in the ground.
“And even though one shouldn’t underestimate the political risk that will continue to dog this project, we shall be supporting the legal action of our member councils and City Hall, in which they are utterly confident of victory”.