Bosses at Heathrow want to introduce a central London style ultra low emission zone for coaches and buses serving the airport.
The move is part of a new 10-point plan to help reduce air pollution around the airport, which currently exceeds EU limits.
The airport also plans to further increase landing fees for the most polluting planes and make its entire fleet of vehicles electric or hybrid, among other measures set out in its blueprint to reduce emissions.
It says the commitments will help cut ground-based nitrous oxide emissions at the airport by 5% by 2020, compared with 2009 levels.
Heathrow's CEO John Holland-Kaye said: "Having spoken to the local community and looked at what we could do to address noise, set out in our 10-point noise action plan published last November, we wanted to work on air quality.
"We've reduced emissions by 16% in the last five years but we need to go further. Having made the easier changes we need to start doing the less easy things."
Heathrow claims airport-related emissions, including those from vehicles carrying passengers and staff to the airport, account for just 16% and 6% respectively of pollution at those sites.
However, Mr Holland-Kaye said he recognised Heathrow had a role to play in reducing pollution around its perimeter.
That stretch of the M4 is currently excluded from the low emission zone, prohibiting the dirtiest vehicles, which covers the majority of London.
Mr Holland-Kaye said this was to allow non-compliant vehicles which had accidentally entered the zone to exit before being penalised.
However, he said Heathrow was in talks with Transport for London (TfL) about ending this exemption, as well as introducing an ultra low emission zone for buses and coaches travelling to the airport.
He told getwestlondon TfL had been very receptive to the idea but he was reluctant to put a time frame on the move as it was not within the airport's power.
He added that Heathrow was also working with TfL to get more cleaner hybrid buses serving routes around the airport.
Heathrow has previously raised the prospect of a congestion zone for passengers and staff travelling by car to the airport. However, this is unlikely to be introduced for many years, if at all.
Heathrow's 10-point plan to manage and reduce emissions:
- Reduce emissions from aircraft at the gate
- Phase out the oldest and dirtiest aircraft
- Improve aircraft taxiing efficiency
- Provide more and better electric vehicle charging points
- Incentivise low-emission vehicles
- Work with partners to set up emissions zones and standards
- Reduce emissions from Heathrow's own fleet
- Pool ground support vehicles to reduce numbers and emissions
- Lead the move to electric vehicles airside
- Modernise Heathrow's heating supply