Brentford & Isleworth MP Ann Keen faces calls to resign from her post as junior health minister over Heathrow.
Political opponents urged her to follow the lead of fellow Labour member Andy Slaughter, who sacrificed his title on Tuesday in protest at plans for a third runway.
Conservative councillor Peter Thompson, leader of Hounslow Council, said: "The Government's decision to ignore residents and press on with Heathrow expansion and the construction of a third runway is quite simply a disaster for our local environment and our quality of life. Even its own Environment Agency has said this could damage public health.
"Surely, given Ann Keen's views have been totally ignored, as a health minister she should do the honourable thing and step down."
Mr Slaughter quit his role as parliamentary private secretary on Tuesday.
"I'm resigning because the runway is a very big issue for Hammersmith and Shepherd's Bush residents. I have to listen to what they say," said the MP for Ealing, Acton & Shepherd's Bush.
Ealing & Southall MP Virendra Sharma also quit his post as private parliamentary secretary following Wednesday's Commons vote on Heathrow, in which the Government's majority was slashed to 19.
Neither Mrs Keen nor her husband Alan, MP for Feltham & Heston, were among the 28 Labour rebels who backed a Tory-led motion calling for a 'rethink' on plans for expansion.
Meanwhile, anti-airport campaigners unveiled plans for a new rail network they claim will rule out the need for expansion at Heathrow.
Under their plans, the airport would become part of a local rail hub connecting with 150 stations across the South East and providing high-speed links to Scotland.
The 2M Group, a cross-party alliance of local authorities which claims to represent five million residents living under the flight path says its proposals would cost a third of the Government's own plans for a £4.5billion rail hub and take a million cars off the road every year.